Global Goal 12: Responsible consumption

Sustainable consumption and production are about promoting resource and energy efficiency, sustainable infrastructure, and providing access to basic services, green and decent jobs and a better quality of life for all. Its implementation helps to achieve overall development plans, reduce future economic, environmental and social costs, strengthen economic competitiveness and reduce poverty.

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In short

  • It is necessary to ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns
  • Sustainability is anchored and integrated into such patterns
Ensure sustainable production and consumption patterns

Since sustainable consumption and production aims at “doing more and better with less,” net welfare gains from economic activities can increase by reducing resource use, degradation and pollution along the whole life cycle, while improving the quality of life.


Various parties are involved, including businesses, consumers, policy makers, researchers, scientists, retailers, media and organisations promoting development cooperation. There also needs to be significant focus on operating on the supply chain, involving everyone from producer to final consumer. This includes educating consumers on sustainable consumption and lifestyles, providing them with adequate information through standards and labels and engaging in sustainable public procurement, among others.

Polluted energy sources

Despite technological advances that have promoted energy efficiency gains, energy use in OECD countries will continue to grow another 35 per cent by 2020. Additionally, the small percentage of fresh (drinkable) water available worldwide must be polluted and wasted less.

Food production

Food must be better distributed. Hundreds of millions of people are hungry, while in some parts of the world there is too much and unhealthy food, causing cardiovascular disease and unnecessary death. The goal is to have halved food waste by 2030.

Sustainable lifestyle

Production and consumption must be cleaner. The goal is to structurally reduce the release of chemicals and other waste to air, water and soil. The goal is to raise awareness in the entire value chain and to stimulate to help develop solutions. It must be made sure that everyone is well-informed about a sustainable lifestyle. This includes farmers, supermarkets, municipalities, water companies and finally, the consumer.

In short:
  • promoting sustainable consumption and production;
  • aim to do more with less;
  • growth in net prosperity growth from economic activities;
  • net welfare gains from economic activities;
  • improve the quality of life;
  • involve various stakeholders;
  • a systematic approach and cooperation in the supply chain;
  • stimulate consumers by education and raising awareness.